Syllabus for Roster(s):

  • 17F HIEU 4512-001 (CGAS)
  • 17F HIEU 5559-001 (CGAS)
In the UVaCollab course site:   17F HIEU 4512 / HIEU 5559

Course Description (for SIS)

European History

HIEU 4512

 

Colloquium in Post-1700 European History

Law & Empire in Mod Europe
 
Fall 2017

Do empires foment violence or prevent it? In recent years, historians have presented two radically different images of empire in modern European history. On the one hand, scholars of modern genocide, totalitarianism, and colonialism have increasingly pointed to European imperialism—alongside modern racism and nationalism—as the driving force in the rise of new kinds of total war, mass violence, and brutal conflict within Europe and between Europe and the world. On the other hand, social and legal historians have focused much attention on the positive features of modern European empires, including their capacity to manage multinational and multireligious populations through decentralized rule, imperial citizenship, and dynastic authority.

Common to both approaches is a new focus on law and the role of European empires in birthing modern international law. Here again we find a considerable debate between those historians who see the rise of international law as a legitimation of empire and humanitarianism and human rights as a pretext for colonialism and others who see a new kind of legal internationalism emerging in response to the realities of the first stage of European globalization and new ideas of liberalism and democracy.

This seminar will explore this historiographical debate through surveying the recent literature and examining various key European empires, chiefly the British, Austrian, French, German, Russian, and Soviet empires in the years between 1800 and 2000. We will track the interaction between law, violence, and imperialism through examination of key historical episodes, including diplomatic turning points such as the Congress of Vienna in 1814-1815 and the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, the rise of Jewish, Polish, and Muslim Questions in international European discourse, and the debates about nationalism and socialism. We will move from the nineteenth century through World War I into the interwar period, with a focus on the Soviet and German Empires’ competition and culminating with the question of the Soviet Bloc.

This colloquium is designed to offer students a chance to survey the recent overlapping historical literatures about European empire, international law, and political violence. We will special attention to topics such as human rights and humanitarianism, religious internationalism, the laws of war, and European nationalism. But most of all, we will use the case studies to examine the basic narrative of international legal history across the last two centuries.

This course is structured as a hybrid 4000-level and 5000-level seminar, with an enrollment divided between 2/3 advanced history department majors and 1/3 graduate students.

Full Syllabus

University of Virginia

Corcoran Department of History

 

HIEU 4512/HIEU 5559

 

Law, Violence, and Empire in Modern Europe

 

Professor James Loeffler

 

Fall 2017

Mondays, 5:00-7:30PM

New Cabell Hall 115

(Rev. Oct. 15)

 

 

Prof. James Loeffler (jbl6w@virginia.edu)

Office: Nau Hall Room 236

Office Hours: Wednesdays, 9:30-10:30AM and by appointment

www.jamesloeffler.com

 

Course Description

Do empires foment violence or prevent it? In recent years, historians have presented two radically different images of empire in modern European history. On the one hand, scholars of modern genocide, totalitarianism, and colonialism have increasingly pointed to European imperialism—alongside modern racism and nationalism—as the driving force in the rise of new kinds of total war, mass violence, and brutal conflict within Europe and between Europe and the world. On the other hand, social and legal historians have focused much attention on the positive features of modern European empires, including their capacity to manage multinational and multireligious populations through decentralized rule, imperial citizenship, and dynastic authority.

Common to both approaches is a new focus on law and the role of European empires in birthing modern international law. Here again we find a considerable debate between those historians who see the rise of international law as a legitimation of empire and humanitarianism and human rights as a pretext for colonialism and others who see a new kind of legal internationalism emerging in response to the realities of the first stage of European globalization and new ideas of liberalism and democracy. This debate, rich and nuanced as it is, might in one sense be distilled to this question: Does international law serve as a check on state power or a ratification of force?

This seminar will explore these historiographical debates through surveying the recent literature and examining various key European empires, chiefly the British, French, and Russian empires in the years between 1800 and 1960. We will track the interaction between law, violence, and imperialism through examination of key historical episodes, including diplomatic turning points such as the Congress of Vienna in 1814-1815 and the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, the rise of modern international law, humanitarianism and human rights, and the emergence of transnational institutions like the League of Nations and the United Nations.

 

This colloquium is designed to offer students a chance to survey the recent overlapping historical literatures about European empire, international law, and political violence. We will special attention to topics such as human rights and humanitarianism, religious internationalism, the laws of war, and European nationalism. But most of all, we will use the case studies to examine the basic narrative of international legal history across the last two centuries.

 

This course is structured as a hybrid 4000-level and 5000-level seminar, with an enrollment divided between 2/3 advanced history department majors and 1/3 graduate students. There will be different requirements for these two cohorts as specified below.

 

Course Requirements

 

The course will be conducted seminar-style, with students expected to come prepared to analyze assigned readings in depth. Besides active participation in the seminar sessions, students will be expected to take responsibility for presenting one week’s optional reading assignment to the seminar.

 

Graduate students will prepare a 25-page, double-spaced historiographical essay on a subject selected in consultation with the instructor. This essay should be understood to be an introductory literature review of a key topic in the history of human rights based primarily on secondary sources. At the conclusion of the course, students will present their papers through brief oral presentations in class.

 

Undergraduate students will prepare a 25-page double-spaced historiographical essay on a subject selected in consultation with the instructor. With the instructor’s supervision, undergraduates will conduct individual research using library resources; prepare a seven-page prospectus by October 9; a rough draft by November 13; and a final paper due by December 10. At the conclusion of the course, students will present their research through brief oral presentations in class.

 

Grading Rubric (Graduate)

 

Class Attendance and In-Class Participation: 50%

Seminar Paper: 50%

 

Grading Rubric (Graduate)

 

Class Attendance and In-Class Participation: 50%

Paper Prospectus and Rough Draft: 10%

Seminar Paper: 40%

 

Grading Matrix

 

A 94-100                       A- 90-93

B+ 87-89                       B 84-86          B- 80-83

C+ 77-79                       C 74-76          C- 70-73

D+ 67-69                       D 64-66          D- 60-63

F Below 60

 

The Honor System

The College of Arts and Sciences relies upon and cherishes its community of trust. We firmly endorse, uphold, and embrace the University’s Honor principle that students will not lie, cheat, or steal, and we expect all students to take responsibility for the System and the privileges that it provides. We recognize that even one Honor infraction can destroy an exemplary reputation that has taken years to build. Acting in a manner consistent with the principles of Honor will benefit every member of the community both while enrolled in the College and in the future. If you have questions about your Honor System or would like to report suspicions of an Honor offense, please see http://honor.virginia.edu/.

 

Course Texts

 

Readings will consist of short primary sources together with 1 book or book-length assignment and 2-3 articles each week plus additional optional readings. Articles and primary sources will be posted online on Collab. Books are available for purchase at the UVA Bookstore and for borrowing at Clemons Reserves. Reading strategies will be discussed.

 

Barnett, Empire of Humanity. A History of Humanitarianism (Also on VIRGO as E-Book)

Conklin, A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895-1930

Fink, Defending the Rights of Others: The Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938

Etkind, Internal Colonization. Russia’s Imperial Experience

Green, Imperial Hero, Jewish Liberator. The Life of Moses Montefiore

Jasanoff, Edge of Empire: Lives, Culture, and Conquest in the East, 1750-1850

Kappeler, Russian Empire

Koskenniemi, Gentle Civilizer of Humanity (Also on VIRGO as E-Book)

Martin, Affirmative Action Empire

Nathans, Beyond the Pale (Also on VIRGO as E-Book)

Pederson, The Guardians (Also on VIRGO as E-Book)

Ribi Forclaz, Humanitarian Imperialism. The Politics of Anti-Slavery Activism, 1880-1940 (Also on VIRGO as E-Book)

Rodogno, Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire, 1815-1914 (Also on VIRGO as E-Book)

Rothschild, Inner Life of Empire (Also on VIRGO as E-Book)

 

8/28 Introductions

 

Bartolomé de Las Casas, In Defense of the Indians (1550), excerpt

Martti Koskenniemi, “Empire and International Law: The Real Spanish Contribution,” University of         Toronto Law Journal 61:1 (Winter 2011): 1-36

9/4 No class – Topic selection week

 

Jock Mccullogh, “Empire and Violence, 1900–1939” in P. Levine, ed., Gender and Empire (2007), 220-39

Dirk Moses, “Empire, Colony, Genocide: Keywords and the Philosophy of History,” in Dirk Moses, ed.,  Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History          (New York, 2010), 3-54

Matthew Stanard, “Violence and Empire. The Curious Case of Belgium and the Congo,” in Robert Aldrich            and Kirsten McKenzie, eds., The Routledge History of Western Empires (New York, 2014),

454-467

 

9/11 The British Paradigm I: Empire as Happy Accident?

 

Maya Jasanoff, Edge of Empire: Lives, Culture, and Conquest in the East, 1750-1850

Jennifer Pitts, “Empire and Legal Universalisms in the 18th Century,” American Historical Review 117:1  (Feb. 2012): 92-121 (Collab)

Anthony Pagden, “Human Rights, Natural Rights and Europe’s Imperial Legacy,” Political Theory 31:2    (2003): 171-99

Matthew Craven, “Colonialism and Domination,” in B. Fassbender and A. Peters, eds., The Oxford          Handbook of the History of International Law (Oxford, 2012), 862-889

 

Optional: Emma Rothschild, Inner Life of Empire; Duncan Bell, The Idea of Greater Britain - Empire and the Future of World Order (Princeton, 2011) (VIRGO as E-Book)

 

9/18 The British Paradigm: Empire as Benevolent Humanitarian?

 

Green, Imperial Hero, Jewish Liberator

Abigail Green, “Humanitarianism in Nineteenth-Century Context: Religious, Gendered, National?”           Historical Journal 57:4 (2014): 1157-1175

Mark Levene, “The Tragedy of the Rimlands, Nation-State Formation and the Destruction of Imperial        Peoples, 1912–48,” in P. Panayi and P. Virdee, eds., Refugees and the End of Empire. Imperial          Collapse and Forced Migration in the Twentieth Century (Palgrave, 2011), 51-78

Eric Weitz, “From the Vienna to the Paris System: International Politics and the Entangled Histories of     Human Rights, Forced Deportations and Civilizing Missions,” American Historical Review 113:5  (2008): 1313-1343

 

Optional: Barnett, Empire of Humanity. A History of Humanitarianism; Rodogno, Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire, 1815-1914

 

9/25 International Law: Modern Political Fiction?

 

Nathaniel Berman, “‘But the Alternative is Despair’: European Nationalism and the Modernist Renewal of  International Law,” Harvard Law Review 106:1792 (1993): 1792-1903

Anthony Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law (Cambridge, 2004),        32-114

Roland Burke, “Human Rights and Empire,” Routledge History of Western Empires (London, 2013),

468-82

 

Optional: Isabel Hull, A Scrap of Paper: Breaking and Making International Law During the Great War   (Ithaca, 2013) (On VIRGO as Ebook); Bruno Cabanes, The Great War and the Origins of    Humanitarianism, 1918-1924 (Cambridge, 2014)

 

10/2 No Class – reading day

 

10/9 International Law as Legal Aid Society?

 

Koskeniemmi, Gentle Civilizer of Humanity

David Kennedy, “International Law in the Nineteenth Century: History of an Illusion,” Nordic Journal of International Law 65 (1996): 385-420

 

Optional: David Kennedy, The Dark Side of Virtue. Reassessing International Humanitarianism (Princeton, 2005); Samuel Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (Harvard, 2010)

 

Paper Prospectus Due

 

10/16 No Class – Lecture by Professor Susannah Heschel (Dartmouth College)

 

“From Antisemitism to Civil Rights Prophets: Learning from the Past for Our Present,”

5:30 PM Nau Hall 101

 

10/23 The League of Nations: Empire by Another Name?

 

In-Class Colloquium: “The League of Nations: Empire by Another Name? International Society Rising? Legal Breakthrough?”

 

In-Class Research Methods Panel by Doctoral Students

 

Pederson, The Guardians

Barbara Metzger, “Towards an International Human Rights Regime during the Inter-War Years: The           League of Nations’ Combat of Traffic in Women and Children,” in Kevin Grant, Philippa Levine,       and Frank Trentmann, eds., Beyond Sovereignty. Britain, Empire and Transnationalism, c. 1880- 1950 (New York, 2007), 54-79

Cecelia Lynch, “Peace Movements, Civil Society, and the Development of International Law,” in B.         Fassbender and A. Peters, eds., The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law         (Oxford, 2012), 198-221

 

Optional: Ribi Forclaz, Humanitarian Imperialism. The Politics of Anti-Slavery Activism, 1880-1940

 

10/30 The Russian Case I: Empire as Prison-House of Nations?

 

Kappeler, Russian Empire

Hans Rogger, “Conclusion and Overview,” in J. Klier and Sh. Lambroza, eds., Pogroms: Anti-Jewish       Violence in Modern Russian History (Cambridge, 1992), 314-72

 

Optional: Etkind, Internal Colonization. Russia’s Imperial Experience; Nathans, Beyond the Pale

Mary Lewis, Divided Rule: Sovereignty and Empire in French Tunisia, 1881-1938 (Berkeley, 2013) (On VIRGO as Ebook); Lisa Leff, Sacred Bonds of Solidarity (Stanford, 2006); Katz, The Burdens of Brotherhood. Jews and Muslims from North Africa to France

 

11/6 No Class – Work week + Colloquium Group Meetings

 

11/13 The Russian Case II: Empire as Affirmative Action?

 

Martin, Affirmative-Action Empire

Martin Malia, “The Archives of Evil,” The New Republic (November 29, 2004): 34–40

Francine Hirsch, “The Soviets at Nuremberg: International Law, Propaganda, and the Making of the          Postwar Order,” The American Historical Review 113: 3 (June 2008): 701-730

Bill Bowring, “Positivism versus Self-Determination: The Contradictions of Soviet International Law,” in Susan Marks, ed., International Law on the Left Re-examining Marxist Legacies (Cambridge,       2008), 133-168

 

Optional: Francine Hirsch, Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet      Union (Cornell, 2005); Ronald Suny, Revenge of the Past (Chicago, 1992)

 

11/20 In-Class Colloquium: Whither Empire? Whither Europe? Whither Law?

                                   

Rough Draft Due 11/21 by email at 5PM

 

            Readings TBA

 

11/27 Research Presentation & Workshop Week Part I

 

12/4 Research Presentation & Workshop Week Part II

 

Final Papers Due via email by 12/10 at 5PM