Blue Annals Chapter 5

Tibetan Texts > Specific Tibetan Text Studies > Deb Ther Sngon Po (Blue Annals) > Chapter By Chapter Summary - The Blue Annals > Chapter 5

Summary of The Blue Annals Chapter 5: Atiśa and the Kadampa Traditions Descending from Him

by Jongbok Yi; preliminary edit and Overview by Rachel Pang (03/25/07)


As the title of the chapter suggests, this section of the text is devoted entirely to the great Indian master Atīśa, his disciple Drom, and the Kadampa tradition that he began. It begins with a detailed account of Atīśa’s life that spans from his birth to the relics that he left behind. The section on his Tibetan disciple Dromtön is relatively short, taking up three sections rather than the nine sections that Atīśa’s biography covers. Following this there is a description of the rwa sgreng monastery and its lineage of abbots, and then various lineages and monasteries of the Kadampa lineage.

Although this chapter may at the outset seem to be a tedious list of biography after biography, I believe that it can yield many interesting findings if subject to a careful and meticulous analysis and interpretation of the details. For instance, the activities that the various personalities in this chapter engage in are diverse: in addition to the usual activities of studying, teaching, and monastery-building, there are times when these individuals engaged in hiding torma and images in walls, murder, rebellion, and medical healing (303, 313). It would be interesting to provide and exhaustive account of all these activities and to extract some sort of meaning out of such a list.

Another avenue of exploration would be to examine how succession works in the monasteries. It seems that sometimes it is from master to disciple, sometimes it is from a vote, and still, sometimes, it is from the appointment of an individual externally. What is the significance of all these different methods of succession? There are also many passages on how the monasteries are being managed to the degree where the management of monasteries seems to be a primary concern of the characters in these times. Thus monastic succession and monastic managment seem to be two key issues for the author of the text.

Finally, it would be interesting to examine the role and status of dreams, visions, and mystical experience in this chapter. Dreams, visions, and mystical experiences are recorded with the same veracity as actual historic events, and it would be interesting to examine the realtionship between truth and history, subjective experiences and objective historical experience.

5.01 The chapter on the Master, Dromtön (Dromston) and the monastery of Watreng (rwa sgreng) (Chandra 216; Chengdu 297; Roerich 241)

5.01.01. Atīśa (982- ), His birth and studies

Born in the Water Male Horse year (chu pho rta – 982 A.D.), Atīśa was the second son of King dge ba'i dpal in India. In his childhood, under the influence of his tutelary deity, Ārya Tārā, {R242} he met Rāhulaguhyavajra (sgra gcan gsang ba'i rdo rje), a yogin of the "Black Mountains"; from this yogin, he received the initiation of the Hevajra cycle, and listened to the exposition of the Tantra and precepts. After establishing in the degrees of utpannakrama and sampannakrama, he proceeded to foreign countries.

From age twenty to thirty three, Atīśa studied Tantra, Bodhisattva precepts and various doctrinal systems from various teachers: Avadhūtipa, Śīlarakṣita Jñānaśrīmati, the younger ku sa li, Jetāri (dze ta ri), Kṛṣṇapāda (nag po zhabs chen po), also known as Balyācārya (ba la), the younger Avadhūtipa, Ḍombhi pa, Vidyākokila (rig pa'i khu yug), Matijñānabodhi, Nāro (nA ro pa), Paṇḍita Mahājana (mi chen po), Bhūtakoṭi pa, the great scholar Dānaśrī (dA chen po), Prajñābhadra (shes rab bzang po), {R244} and Bodhibhadra (byang chub bzang po). Ratnākaraśānti, gser gling pa (Dharmakīrti, chos kyi grags pa).

After that, he spent most of his time as the Elder (gnas brtan chen po) of the monastic college of Vikramaśīla, and became vastly reknowned.

On numerous occasions lha btsun pa byang chub 'od sent him invitations to visit Tibet which were accompanied by large offerings of gold.

5.01.02 the situation of Ngari (mnga’ ris) and the invitation of Atīśa to Tibet

Lama Yeshe Öd (lha bla ma ye shes 'od) of Ngari (mnga' ris), the retired king and the commander of the kingdom of Ngari became a captive in the battle with the gar log. The gar log demanded an amount of gold equivalent to the weight of Yeshe Öd . However, Yeshe Öd asked Chang Chub Öd (byang chub 'od) to use the gold to invite Buddhist scholars from India instead. nag tsho tshul khrims rgyal ba (1011 - ) journeyed to India and requested Atīśa’s to journey to Tibet. In 1040 A.D., Atīśa embarked for Tibet for the benefit of the Buddhist teachings despite that such a journey would shorten his life. nag tsho promised to send Atīśa back three years later. {R245-247}

They spent a year in Nepāl and built a temple of Sthaṃ vihāra. There, they deposited provisions for the numerous clergy that lived there. They ordained many people (1041 A.D.)

In the year of the Water Male Horse (chu pho rta – 1042 A.D.) the Atīśa proceeded to Ngari. When Atīśa arrived at Ngari, lha bla ma prepared to welcome him despite that lha bla ma was supposed to be in a jail of the gar log. He learned and received the Tantric precepts from Atīśa. Moreover, he requested Atīśa to compose a treatise, the Bodhipatha-pradīpa, for solving disagreements among scholars. {R248} Atīśa was called paṇḍita las 'bras pa because he held in high esteem the fruits of deeds. {R249}

5.01.03 Rinchen Zanpo(rin chen bzang po) (958 A.D . – 1054 A.D.)

Atīśa met Lotsawa Rinchen Zanpo (lo tsA ba rin chen bzang po) who was very proud of his own knowledge of Buddhist doctrine. Although Atīśa asked the Lotsawa to travel together, her refused because of his old age. Atīśa asked the Lotsawa "O great Lotsawa! When an individual is to practice all the teachings of Tantras sitting on a single mat, how is he to act?" The Lotsawa replied: "Indeed, one should practice according to each Tantra separately." The Master exclaimed: "Rotten is the Lotsawa! Indeed there was need of my coming to Tibet! All these Tantras should be practiced together". The Master gave him various teachings. After Atīśa left toward Ü (dbus) and he had meditated for ten years and had a vision of the maṇḍala of Śri Saṃvara (1052 A.D.). He passed away at the age of 97 (1054 A.D.) Atīśa was the only master among his sixty teachers who made him meditate. {R249-250}

5.01.04 composing the Abhisamaya (mngon par rtogs pa) of the Guhyasamāja

lha btsun pa said to the Master: "Among the Tantras I revere the Guhyasamāja and among the gods I revere Avalokiteśvara." The Master composed the Abhisamaya (mngon par rtogs pa) of the Guhyasamāja {R251} in which 'jig rten dbang phyug was the chief deity of the maṇḍala of Guhyasamāja according to the system of Jñānapāda (ye sges zabs) and in which one had to recite the ma Ni padme with the addition of three letters representing the mantra of the above, and a Hymn to this maṇḍala. This work agrees with the 'dus pa'i dbang bskur bzhi brgya lnga bcu pa. This method became famous among scholars. The Master spent three years in Ngari and the religious practice based on the method of the Master received wide acceptance. {R250-251}

5.01.05 encounter with Dromston pa in 1044

When he was preparing to return to India, he was met by Drom ('brom) while residing at a place called rgyal zhing of pu hrangs. Regarding Drom: his family was of the bzher clan. His father (was named) rta gsum shu bzher, and his mother was called khu lto gza' lan cig ma. He was born in the year of the Wood Female Serpent (sing mo sbrul – 1005 A.D.), at upper stod lungs. He learned reading and writing in gzhu. While living there, before 1044, jo bo se bstun met Dromand travel to Nepāl. In Nepāl, he defeated a heretical acarya. After his coming back to Tibet, Drom requested his teaching, and Drom learned from him while working and guarding his teacher. When Drom asked let him go to meet under Atīśa, he gave him a donkey with a load and books. {R251-252} 'phran kha ber chung promised him that he would build a monastery called rwa sgreng. {R252-253}

Drom then proceeded to 'phan yul. He went to pay his respects to zhang chen po of rgyal, who had imparted the upāsaka precepts to him. There he also met ka ba shAkya dbang phyug and told him that he would send a letter to him if it would be possible to invite Atīśa. He also said that ka ba should prepare to welcome Atīśa by letting this be knwon to those who held power in Ü. {R253} In 1044 A.D, they encountered each other in the street as if they knew one another from before, and Drom followed Atīśa. Atīśa bestowed on him an initiation. Drom was able to discuss with the Master through the night. {R253-254}

5.01.06 Travel to lha sa

After spending a year (1045 A.D.) in skyi rong, they attempted to travel toward bal po rdzong. However, because of internal feuds, they were unable to proceed. Drom suggested Atīśa to go to Central Tibet by sending a message through dbang phyug mgon of zhang. {R254} Drom’s letter was transmitted to ka ba by zhang dbang phyug mgon, His name was dropped off from the welcoming letter for Atīśa. This made him hurry to meet Atīśa. Other teachers were stimulated by him and hurried to welcome Atīśa. They met Atīśa in Upper dpal thang. {R255}

They were welcomed in rgyang, tsha sna, nyan tsho. At tsha sna, Atīśa showed miraculous power. For example, a spring appeared. But, he was not welcome on the road to gtsang and rong. On the way to rong, they suffered from a shortage of provisions. {R255-256} Having reached the ferry of spel dmar, they proceeded towards chos 'khor bsam yas. lha btsun bodhirAja arranged a good reception for them, and numerous Tibetan teachers and notables assembled. khu ston told the Master about the wonders of his land and the Master promised to visit it, journeying to thang po che. {R257}

There the Master resided for one month at rags rtsigs khang pa. There Dromalso joined him. Since khu did not arrange a proper reception, the Master and his retinue fled from the place, and entered the ferryboat of myang po. {R257} After that the Master proceeded to bsam yas and took up residence at dpe dkar gling. (Residing) there he prepared with the assistance of the lo tsA ba (nag tsho) many translations. However, because the Lady 'chims mo (jo mo 'chims mo) was hostile to Atīśa, Drom arranged for Atīśa go to bsam yas. {R257-258}

Atīśa gave an extensive exposition which was written down by phya dar ston pa and became known as the "Prajñā pāramitā according to the method of khams" (phar phyin khams lugs ma). At snye thang, he bestowed on Drom the precepts on the instructions to the three classes of living beings. {R258}

After that the Master was invited by rngog legs pa'i shes rab to lha sa. Rngog requested Atīśa and nag tsho to translate the Mādhyamakahṛdayavṛttitarkajvālā. In order to explain the text, the Master composed the long and short dbu ma'i man ngag. After that he spent some time at snye thang. {R258-259}

On three occasions, the wealth that Atīśa had amassed while preaching to others, was offered to the Teacher and the monastic community of Vikramaśīla in India through chag khri mchog and other disciples. One day the Master fell from the preacher's chair. By performing the sādhāna of Hayagrīva accompanied by four ḍākiṇīs he subdued the demon. Thus, snye thang, lha sa, yer pa and lan pa, are the places where the Master preached the doctrine extensively. {R259-260}

5.01.07 Atīśa passes away

Once again, Atīśa went to snye thang, but, due to his illness, he went to 'chims phu for six months. Afterwards, he returned to snye thang. Formerly, when the Master was residing at khab gung thang, he sent nag tsho to Nepāl for learning the guhya samāja according to the system of Nāgārjuna from a disciple of nA ro pa. Because Atīśa passed away, while nag tsho learnt from him, later bka' dam pa criticized him. But, shar ba pa defended nag tsho as innocent about that guilty. {R260-261} According to BA, of all his disciples, Dromtön’s was the only one’s whose mind was opened by the Master. While staying at bsam yas, the Master bestowed on Dromat 'chims phu numerous methods concerning Tantric ceremonies, the Dohā (Saraha's) and many other hidden precepts. However, because Drom's chief purpose was to keep immoral persons from practicing the Tantric system, he pretended not to have studied secret texts. After entrusting Drom as his successor, Atīśa passed away on the 20th day of the middle autumn month of the year Wood Male Horse (sing pho rta 1054 A.D.). {R261}

5.01.08 Atīśa’s disciples

The five special disciples of the Master were: the mahāpaṇḍita {R262} pi to pa, Dharmākaramati, the Lion of the Mādhyamika, Mitraguhya (bshes gnyen gsang ba), Jñānamati and the paṇḍita Kṣitigarbha and so forth.

5.01.09 Atīśa’s relics

After the cremation, ka ba shAkya dbang phyug divided the ashes of the Master equally between khu, rngog and others. He gave images and objects of meditation to Drom, khu, rngog. 'gar dga' ba erected silver shrines to preserve the relics given to them. Then having gathered the offerings, presented by ka ba and others, they held a great memorial ceremony in the Sheep year (1055 A.D.).

5.01.10 Dromston pa

Drom built a vīhara at snye thang. Drom took into his service all those "sa dra of the Master" whom the Master used to support, and proceeded to stod lungs. He spent some time in the sandy valley of gnam. About that time the chiefs of 'dam held a council and resolved to invite Drom to rwa sgreng. He also received an invitation from 'phang kha ber chung.

In the New Year of the Fire Male Ape year (1056 A.D.), he proceeded to rwa sgreg, and built the monastery of rwa sgreng. {R263} Drom lived for nine years more at rwa sgreng and passed away at the age of sixty, in the year Wood Male Dragon (1064 A.D.).{R264}

5.01.11 Dromston pa’s disciples The Three Brothers (sku mched rnam gsum)

phu chug ba, a disciple of the Master, attended on 'brom. spyan snga (1038 A.D.). Drom taught the Doctrine to phu chung ba with reference to the Four Noble Truths.

Regarding spyan snga: from childhood he took up ordination in the presence of mal shes rab sems dpa' at stod lungs, and proceeded to Dromat rwa sgreng in 1057 A.D. Drom taught him the meditation on emptiness and gave him the Tantric precepts of Atīśa.

po to ba was born in 1031 A.D. and took up ordination in the presence of glang tshul byang of rgyal lha khang ('phan yul). For one year, he acted as the steward (gnyer ba) of the monastic community of brags rgyab ('phan yul). In 1058 A.D. (sa pho khyi), he proceeded to Dromat rwa sgreng. As soon as Drom taught the Doctrine, po to ba achieved understanding. These three became known as the "Three Brothers". {R263-264} the chief disciples

The chief disciples of the kalyāna mitra ('brom) ston pa: were kyu ra gzhon nu 'od zer, lhab mi shes rab gyung drung, ka ba rgya gar, rug pa'i zhang chen po, bran ka jo btsun, kam yung pa, yung pa ka skyog po, yol rdzong rnal 'byor pa, ston pa yon tan 'bar, sgom pa rin chen bla ma, a mes sman rgan, sga sgom ag tshoms, ston pa dbang phyug 'bar, pha rgan Idong ston, jo bo legs, kham pa lung pa chen po, the "Three Brothers" and others. {R264-265}

5.01.12 teachings of Dromston pa’s disciples {R265}

5.01.13 rnal 'byor pa chen po and the lineage of the abbot of rwa sgreng

After 'brom's death, rnal 'byor pa chen po (rnal 'byor a mes, 1015 A.D. – 1078 A.D.) acted as Abbot of rwa sgreng from 1065 A.D. to 1078 A.D. He first met the Master at ? and thoroughly studied the Doctrine under him. It is said that his understanding of the two truths was better than Drom himself. He tried to finish what Droms could not complete. His chief disciples were rin chen sning po of stod lungs (near lha sa), lhab mi chen po, the kalyāna mitra mang ra and others. {R265-266}

After rnal 'byor pa, 'dzen dbang phyug rgyal mtshan (dgon pa pa: 1016-1082) became Abbot of the monastery (rwa sgreng). He acted as Abbot from 1078 to 1082 for five years. The dgon pa pa's family name was 'dzen, and his name was dbang phyug rgyal mtshan. He met Atīśa at nyan tsho like rnal ‘byor pa did. He had a special ability of being able to not breath. He also had numerous disciples, such as sne’u zur pa, zhang ka ma pa, gnyan sna me ba and 'bre ko de lung pa, these four being known as the "Four sons of dgon'' (dgon gyi bu bzhi).

History of Abbots of rwa sgreng

  • 1056-1064: Drom established the monastery of rwa sgreng. {R262- 263}
  • 1065 - 1078: rnal 'byor pa chen po
  • 1078 - 1082: dgon pa pa
  • 1083 - ? : No abbots (religious hunger of rwa sgreng)
  • For 3 years, po to ba was abbot, but having heard kha rag sgom chung's speaking evil of him, he went toward the ruined temple of rug pa to see the 'son of li mo' (sha ra ba). {R266-267}
  • several nominal abbots
  • 'od 'jo
  • gur ston
  • Invited abbot: The elder of rwa sgreng invited rma ston but rma ston refused to be the Abbot of rwa sgreng. The elder sent present, and rma ston became Abbot for many years. {R267}
  • Invited abbot: the upādhyāya shes skor ba
  • Elected abbot: 'dul ba 'dzin pa
  • jam dbyangs pa acted as abbot for many years till 1477 A.D. {R267} The chapter on the Master, Dromston and the monastery of rwa sgreng.

5.02. The Chapter on po to ba

5.02.01 phu chung ba

phu chung ba gzhon nu rgyal mtshan did not maintain disciples and showed great diligence in the worship of the Ratna, and inwardly remained in meditation. He preached extensively the Four Truths to those who came to be introduced to the Doctrine (chos 'brel zu ba). He had several wise yogin disciples including karma grags and others. {R267-268}

5.02.02 po to ba

po to ba rin chen gsal: After the death of 'brom, he practised meditation till the age of 50. From the age of 51, he laboured for the benefit of others. He resided temporarily at mkhan grags ('phan yul), the sgro lag monastery, at mthar thog ('phan yul), stag lung. Six basic texts of bka’ dam pa are the Bodhipathapradīpa, the Mahāyānasūtralaṃkāra, the Bodhisattvabhūmi, the Śikṣāsamuccaya, the Bodhisattvacāryavatara, the Jātakas and the Udānavarga.

In later life, having built the po to dgon pa (in 'phan yul), he took up residence there. He used to say: "The so called Mahāmudrā agrees in meaning with the Samādhirāja sūtra, but we should neither deprecate, nor practice it." {R269-269} He had declared himself to be an incarnation of the ārya sthavira yan lag 'byung. He was born in the year Iron Female Sheep (1031 A.D.) and died at the age of 75 in the year Wood Female Hen (1105 A.D.).

His disciples included:

The Eight Great Ones: from gnyal: glang bya rab pa and gnyos bra gor ba; from dol: 'be mon bu chung ba and rog dmar zhur ba; from Upper gtsang: bya and phag; from Lower (gtsang): ram sding ma ba and snang dre'u lhas pa; from Upper myang: lhag and shes; from gyag sde: sog po ba; from bzang: gru gu lung pa, kha rag sgom chung, 'gos of gnas khang, nags ston mtha' dag, lho stod pa, myang po ri kha pa, 'khro ston ku su ra ba, grog pa brtson seng, zur re ba mtha' bzhi, gtsang pa mkhar po pa, ko de lung pa of rgyal, gya' nos pa of dar yul, ye shes seng ge, wa brag dkar ba, sgro'i stag mgo ba, pho brang sdings pa of grab, sgro lag pa of rgyal, 'brongs stons pa of rma, ban de ba Rin byang, mag pa gnyan chung, mal gro ba glang sgom, thang po che ba, dgon mer pa, zhang chen po of gyu sgra, dge sbyong chen po of la mo, mdo lung pa, (%) the "Upper" and "Lower" dbus zhar dgon pas, sgyu sbyangs dbang seng, byar pa rin gzhon, stod lungs pa dbang phyug grags, Great Pillars of dbus: glang ri thang pa, shar ba pa {R269-270}

5.02.03 rog she rab rgya mtsho

Regarding rog shes rab rgya mtsho (1059-1131): upon taking up ordination, he studied the Abhidharma and the Vinaya with ? who had recently become famous. He had studied the Doctrine under dol pa from 1072 to 1093. 1072 was the third year since the establishment by po to ba of a monastic college. He was accepted by the kalyṇ? mitra dol pa who was aged 26. He attended on him for 22 years, and after that laboured extensively for the welfare of living beings. It is said that he had more than 1000 disciples at yang gang. Thus concludes the chapter on po to ba.

5.03 The Chapter on glang thang.

During a considerable time he maintained an assembly of disciples. Following the custom of po to ba, he trained disciples. Saying that glang ri thang pa was a manifestation of the Budda Amitabha, khyung po rnal 'byor cut his hair in the presence of glang ri thang pa. He also became a disciple of sne’u zur pa. From among his two thousand disciples, there were many, such as yar klungs lcags zhin pa, 'dul 'dzin of ba yags, lung mo pa mdo sde, zhang btsun gnyan, 'gar zhan zhun pa, ma thang pa, nye mal pa and others. {R270- 271}

sha bo sgang pa padma byang chub was also a disciple of glang thang pa. He gathered round himself about a thousand disciples. {R271}

glang thang zhan acted as abbot of glang thang (in 'phan yul). He was succeeded a by the kalyāṇa mitra gnyan, the ācārya sgom pa, the kalyāṇa mitra 'gar pa and the ācārya gtsang pa. Then glang thang was entrusted to sangs rgyas dbon of rgya ma. This glang thang zhan was also met by phag mo gru pa . This is the chapter on glang thang.

5.04 The chapter from shar ba pa to 'chad kha pa.

5.04.01 shar ba pa

In his youth, shar ba pa proceeded to po to ba, took up ordination, and heard the latter's instructions. After the death of po to ba, most of the latter's disciples assembled round him. While he taught the Uttaratantra, he was not satisfied with the quality of translation and relied his teaching on incomplete translation of rngog. {R271}

When pa tshab lo tsA ba from India, he preached the Mādhyamika doctrine, shar ba pa offered him many of his own novices as disciples. When shar ba pa read the texts of the Mādhyamika translation by pa tshab, he suggested to corrected his translation. At rwa sgreng, he took away the Sūtrasamuccaya and asked its translation to the Kashmirian Jayānanda, the lo tsA ba pa tshab nyi ma grags and khu mdo sde 'bar. While other bka’ gdams pa maintained that the cittotpada rites of the Mādhyamikas and the Vijñānavādins different, he maintained similarities of rites based on two systems. Later, the All knowing blo bzang grags pa'i dpal (tsong kha pa) maintained the same theory. {R271-272} ==> What are differences and similarities of the cittotpada rite. Are there any rite based on Mādhyamikas?

From among his 3600 disciples included Prajñā jvāla, nag shod dpe ston, ban chen skyas bu of Idan, shes rab rdo rje of gzho, gtum ston of snar thang, grags pa seng ge of bya, 'jing pa dgye lung pa, byang chub grags of la stod, rtsed pa of Lower myang, rgyu bug pa of shangs, gtsang gad gnyos pa, {R273} khu le'i kha mo zer ston, 'Be dkar of Upper myang, myang ro pa, bya rgyus pa, jo sras of Upper myang, shar ba pa blo gros grags, rgya ston of gtsang, zhar chos of po dong, dge 'dun skyabs of gnyal, gyor ston of myang po. the "former" and the "latter" tshes pas, gnyos ston of gnyal, dar rin of gnyal, jo sras kong po, lho pa dar ma grags, myang of sol thang, sba 'dul of nag mo, tshul she of zhogs, the "latter" zhar dgon pa, skyo ston of yung, stod lungs mon gra pa, lho pa dar ston, byang grags of rgyal, bya ston 'chad ka pa, stabs kha ba, the Great, and many other holy men.

5.04.02 bya ‘chad kha pa

bya ’chad kha pa (ye shes rdo rje:1101 - 1175) had been a disciple of ras chung pa of lo ro. He went as attendant of ras chung pa to a religious assembly of ngor rje btsan bho ra at gnyal. When he was studying the Vinaya under sha mi, there he met the kalyāṇa mitra myang lags zhing pa in yar klungs.

From him he heard the "Eight Sentences" (tshig brgyad ma) of glang ri thang pa, and faith was born in him. For four years, he attended on the kalyāṇa mitras dol pa and lugs smad pa till 1089 A.D. At the age of 20, he met accidentally a disciple of glang ri thang pa in lha sa and found that glang ri thang pa passed away and there was a conflict between gnyan who became the second abbot of glang thang and 'dul ba 'dzin pa.

Having heard that, he proceeded to shar ba pa the Great who was residing at khang pa gnas of gzho. {R273-274} He attended the classes, but the words of the blo sbyong (tshig brgyad ma) did not appear clear to him. After 13 years studying with shar ba pa, he could clearly understand blo sbyong. {R274}

{R275} He had taught and learned blo byong at gzho, and for six years at dge gong, shar ba, and byen. While residing at 'gres phu, he taught the don bdun ma (blo sbyong don bdun ma). He proceeded to mal gro and founded the monastery of Old 'chad kha ('chad kha rnying ma in 'phan yul).

He also prophesized to se spyil bu pa that he would establish the present day "New" 'chad kha. Following that, he visited bya nur mo. He composed the mthar thug gsum gyi gdams pa and an autobiography in ślokas. {R275}

5.04.03 se spyil bu pa

se spyil bu pa’s family name was se. He was born at in the Iron Ox year(lcags glang – 1121 A.D.), and his name was chos kyi rgyal mtshan. For many years he followed 'chad kha pa. In the year Wood Ape (sing spre – 1164 A.D.) he founded the "New" 'chad kha. He also established a monastery at spyil bu. After the death of 'chad kha pa, he resided alternatively in the above two monasteries for 14 years, between the year Fire Ape (me spre – 1176 A.D.) aud the Earth Hen (sa bya – 1189 A.D.) year. He died in his (1189 A.D. 69th year) at spyil bu.

His disciples the yogin byang seng, rgya spang thang pa, lha dge 'dun sgang pa, and nyan lha sdings pa founded the monasteries of gro sa, spang sa, dge 'dun sgang and nyan lha sdins respectively.

5.04.04 lha lung gyi dbang phyug

lha lung gyi dbang phyug, son of jo bo rnyal 'byor and dpal 'dren, lady of sna nam. {R276-277} From 1165 to 1172, gu ri ba was his teacher. At the age of 15, he invited and requested klubs dkar to act as ācārya, and khyung po as upādhyāya, and thus received ordination at bya sa. He received the name of byang chub rin chen. He also studied the Vinayakārikā and after hearing the sum brgya pa twice, he mastered it. In the same year, he preached to them at spu gu no, and upon seeing the image of bya 'chad kha pa, he was filled with faith. Foreseeing his own death, he went to se spyil bu pa. In 1182, his 24th year, se spyil bu pa ordained him as a monk. The upādhyāya glan, the ācārya zhang, gnyags performed the ritual and gave secret precepts.

He attended on many teachers, such as the kha che pan chen and others. After the death of se spyil pa, lung gyi dbang phyug occupied the abbot's chair of spyil bu for 43 years, from 1190 to 1232. He also received the permission (lung) of the entire kangyur and therefore became known as the "Lord of Permissions". {R278-279}

5.04.05 lha 'gro ba'i mgon po

Regarding lha 'gro ba'i mgon po (1186 – 1259): his father was jo 'bag and his mother lha gcig dzam gling, sister of lha 'dri sgang pa. He was born in the Fire Male Horse year (me pho rta – 1186A.D.). At the age of 16, he obtained the upāsaka vows from 'chad kha in the presence of lha lung gyi dbang phyug in 1191. He received the name of byang chub 'od.

After lha lung gyi dbang phyug’s death, he became abbot from 1233 to 1259. He managed many monasteries of po to and its branch monasteries, 30 monasteries of kong po, from dags po, from gnyal the monastery of zangs po che and its branch monasteries, rong rtse dkar. In subsequent periods, there were many followers of the Spiritual Lineage of spyil bu pa at zangs po che and bra gor. {R278-279}

He laboured for the benefit of scholars, priests, and notables, and died at the age of 74 in the Earth Female Sheep (sa mo lug – 1259 A.D.) year at spyil bu. After his cremation many relics were distributed spyil bu, ngo sgra, spu gu ngo and inside the image of Mahābodhi and so forth. {R280}

5.04.06 From blo gros ye shes to lha zur khang pa

blo gros ye shes of lha brag kha was born at bye chung in the Iron Male Dog year (lcags pho khyi – 1250 A.D.) as the son of the Lord shAkya bkra shis and skyor mo dar rgyan. He became a disciple of lha 'gro ba'i mgon po, and mastered, in the manner of a filled vase, all the knowledge of sbas pa ston gzhon. For 27 years he occupied the abbot's chair, from the year Iron Male Ape (lcags pho spre – 1260 A.D.) to the year Fire Dog (me khyi – 1286 A.D.), and laboured extensively for the welfare of living beings. He lived until he was 37.

lha zur khang pa (1277 - 1337) was the son of jo bar. He became a disciple of lha brag kha pa and received the upāsaka vow. He was ordained and received the name of dbang phyug ye shes. From ston gzhon he heard the "Five Treatises of Maitreya", the tshig 'jug and other texts, and mastered them without difficulty. From the upādhāya lhag ru ba he heard the Abhidharmakośa and preached it to a class of pupils. He became abbot of spyil bu from 1287 to 1307. {R280-281}

lha blo gros 'od (1285 - 1350) was the eldest son of king grags pa rin chen and lha gcig rdo rje. He proceeded to spyil bu (in 'phan yul) as indicated by lha zur khang pa and received from zur khang pa the upāsaka vows. With zur khang pa he studied all the basic texts and instructions. In particular, he heard many oral precepts known and unknown, such as the blo sbyong don bdun ma and others. From 1311 to 1350, he had been the abbot of spyil bu for 40 years. During this period the trouble between sa skya and 'bri khung came to an end. {R281}

After that, lha rin chen seng ge who possessed excellent {R282} faculties, such as the ability to remember his former rebirths, etc., held the abbotship until the Fire Female Ox (me mo glang – 1337 A.D.) year. This chapter is from shar ba pa to 'chad kha pa.

5.05 The chapter on snar thang

Alias: gtum ston
Date: 1285 - 1350
gtum ston blo gros grags pa, by request of shar ba pa, spent the period between 1141 - 1152 around snar thang. While he was practicing meditation, a number of followers gathered round him and in 1153 A.D., he founded snar thang. He spent there 14 years and later proceeded to stod of Upper Tibet.
1166 to 1185: rdo ston shes rab grags
1186 to 1195: zhang bstun rdo rje 'od
1196 to 1234: gro ston bdud rtsi grags
1235 to 1244: zhang ston chos kyi bla ma
1245 to 1244: sangs rgyas sgom pa seng ge skyabs
1245 to 1280: mchims nam mkha' grags
1281 to 1296: skyo ston smon lam tshul khrims
1297 to 1303: nyi ma rgyal mtshan
1304 to 1315: ze'u brtson 'grus grags pa
1316 to 1327: ze'u brtson 'grus grags pa’s grags pa shes rab
1328 to 1367: the mahā upādhyāya blo bzang grags pa
1367 to 1374:
1375 : the mahā upādhyāya kun rgyal ba
1417: the mahā upādhyāya rin po che grub pa shes rab
1418 – 1433: the mahā upādhyāya bsod nams mchog grub. In 1433, there was disagreement in the monastery, so bsod names mchog grub moved to dbus but could not come back. There took place much wrangling and even some casualties between the monks and the mahā upādhyāya's younger brother.
1433 - : spyan snga grags pa ba, bka' bcu pa bzod pa pa, 'dul 'dzin dpal ldan bzang po
1476 (present): shes rab rgyal mtshan {R283} The chapter on snar thang.

5.06 The Chapter on kham lung pa and the disciples of shar ba pa

sgang shAkya yon tan of Kham pa lung was born in the Wood Female Ox (sing mo glang – 1023 A.D.) year. He lived for 91 years until the Wood Female Sheep (sing mo lug – 1115 A.D.) year. His teaching was known to contain {R284} eight sections (thun brgyad ma). After his death, monks gathered at the residence of sne’u zur pa who had about 1000 disciples. Among shar ba pa's disciples nyi ma 'dul 'dzin was selected by his teacher to preserve the tradition.

The yogin shes rab rdo rje was understood to own property. He occupied the chair for three years. He founded the monasteries of stabs ka, 'od 'jo and khra phu. rong ston kha bo che took over 'od 'Jo. rnyam med 'dul ba 'dzin pa took over khra phu. At khra phu the study of the Vinaya and of the Abhidharmakośa continued for a long time. gzhon nu yon tan (1127-1213) of 'od 'jo gathered 1,000 disciples and dar ma grags (1103 - 1174) of stabs ka gathered about 600 disciples. {R284} This is the chapter on kham lung pa and the disciples of shar ba pa.

5.07 The chapter on the abbots (of bya yul) from spyan snga to bya yul pa.

5.07. 01 spyan snga

spyan snga tshul khrims 'bar was the son of dbas shAkya rdo rje and his mother was li mo ye shes sgron. In childhood he was called stag tshab 'bar. In 1057, he came to rwa sgrengand attended on 'brom. Later he attended on rnyal 'byor pa, dgon pa pa and the yogin shes rab rdo rje. From his childhood he believed in the doctrine of 亨nyat and possessed great wisdom, as well as a sufficient knowledge of Sanskrit to enable him to translate (Sanskrit texts). He used to recite mantras, whatever were to be found inTibet. He erected many caityas made of jewels, similar in style to the Master. He exhibited many supernatural powers. He died at snug rum. It seems to me that this was due to lack of devotion on the part of the elder (sthavira) of lo (otherwise he would have passed away at lo). He passed away at the age of 66.

Among his disciples (were found) 'u yug pa a mi, rgya rtse sbre ba, sku bsrungs ston pa, klungs shod ral pa, 'dul 'dzin sal gur ston pa, 'tsher ston, thang 'dul, Drom'dul the four, thar pa'i phag sgom, ched cher bag ye sgom pa, rug pa'i rgya sgom and mang ra sgom pa – the four, zar pa jo btsun, pa'i sgre pa, 'phan yul pa rgya, yul chos pa lha bzo, stod lungs pa chen po, khyun kham po che, lho brag pa pa wa ston, gtsang pa jo phad, bya yul pa chen po and others. {R285-286}

5.07.02 stod lungs pa and zar pa phag sgom

stod lungs pa chen po rin chen snying po (1032-1116) established the monastery of stod lungs btsan 'gro and gathered about a hundred disciples.

zar pa phag sgom founded the monastery of zar at mal gro. {R286}

5.07.03 bya yul pa

bya yul pa (1075 - 1138)was born at gol go lung in stod lungs in the year Wood Female Hare (sing mo yos – 1075 A.D.). His father was g.yung 'drung brtan 'bar and his mother gyi ljangs gza' lcam bu. In 1086, he took up the noviciate and was given the name of gzhon nu 'od. At the age of 12, he became a successful steward (gner ba) of gol go lung. In 1088, ye shes rgyal mtshan entrusted him to the great stod lungs pa and he became the latter's attendant. {R286}

Once, when spyan snga was residing at cho rab, stod lungs pa sent him as spyan snga’s attendant by request of spyan snga. stod lungs pa presented to spyan snga his attendant and with him the customary scarf. One year later, spyan snga having dressed bya yul pa in woolen clothes, sent him to stod lungs pa.

He worked hard, and the possessions of spyan snga was increased. spyan snga extremely like his attitude, and the old disciples became envious. po to ba also praised him from afar, for both his service to spyan snga and his courteous attitude towards the other disciples. {R287}

bya yul pa resided at phu chung, 'tshal chung and brul gyi ra ba dkar po, and was invited to gnyer by byang dar ma ratna and stayed there. {R288} During this period there were two Tantrics, husband and wife, at bya yul. They presented that place to zha ba who gave it to glang ri thang pa. However, because of refusal of glang ri thang pa, bya yul pa pleased to receive it. bya yul subdued him by spreading his mat over him. Since he had been an intimate friend of shar ba pa, the latter's disciples were also sent to help in the building of the vīhara. His attendant sher seng who made his effort to establish the monastery was poisoned by se chung ba, and bya yul pa guided sher seng to escape the Hell. {R288-289}

When spyan snga was about to die, he said: "Do not cake up final monastic ordination", so for a long time he abstained from taking up final ordination. {R290-291} Later, he had a dream that helped him to understand that a second ordination was not necessary. Again he offered prayers and then saw in his dream that he was given by his Teacher an Indian monastic robe (cīvara). He thought that he was allowed to become a monk and took up ordination. He laboured extensively for the benefit of the Doctrine. He died at the age of 64, on the 18th day of the Kārtika month (smin drug) of the year Earth Male Horse (1138 A.D.) {R291}

Among the 2000 monks, there were 500 who attained a concentrated trance. Among the not learned kalyāṇa mitras, there were nine "Great Outsiders", eight "Great Middle Ones" (bar) and three "Inner" Spiritual Sons.

5.07.04 gtsang pa and glang lung pa

He was born at snubs yul rong of gtsang in the year Fire Female Serpent (me mo sbrul – 1077 A.D.) as the son of a great Tantric (sngags pa chen po), named snubs a la la, and his wife, ral rgyags gza' lcam ma. {R293} He had a vision of a ḍākiṇī that filled the entire sky. In particular, he saw a ḍākiṇī, called 'bar ma. Among his teachers, to mention only the translators, were: rngog lo tsA ba, gnyan lo, ba ri lo tsA ba, rwa lo, btsan kha bo che, five in all.

He traveled India and he turned back and proceeded to skyi shod (lha sa).{R294} Though scholars used to speak disparagingly about the bka’ gdams pas, he thought that these bka’ gdams pas must also possess a complete Doctrine of their own. Despite of people’s blame, he requested to bya yul pa be his teacher of the Mahāyāna Tantras. {R295}

{R296} When bya yul pa taugh him, gtsang pa rin po che, he understood completely all the words of the four classes of the Tantras, so there can not be any doubt as to his understanding of their meaning.

The inmates of lo invited him and he became Abbot of lo. Later when bya yul pa was about to die, he sent a messenger, but the latter did not convey his message, and thus they did not contact each other at the time of death. After the death of bya yul pa, he cook over both lo and bya yul. {R296}

He passed away at the age of 85, in the year Iron Female Serpent (lcags mo sbrul – 1161 A.D.). {R297}

His disciples: it is said that gtsang pa had four sons and other disciples, in all 14.

5.07.05 glang lung pa

The Abbot rin po che glang lung pa (1123-1193): he was born as the eldest of the three sons of snubs rdo rje btsan grags and hor gza' mo in the year Water Female Hare (chu mo yos – 1123 A.D.) at sgang ra of stod lungs 'tshur. In 1140, he went to see nyag mo ba, a disciple of bya yul pa, and took up the vows of an upāsaka. He took up the noviciate and was given the name of brtson 'grus gzhon nu. {297}

In 1127, he received the final monastic ordination. Till 1134, he attended on the kalyāṇa mitra bkra shis sgang pa, a disciple of both nyag mo ba and bya yul pa. {R298}

According to the record of his dream, it seems true that the upāya mārga of the Master was handed down in the Lineage of spyan snga, but there were different opinions too.

When his meeting with gtsang pa rin po che, an extraordinary faith were born in him. Once again he went to meet him from bkra shis sgang. {R299} From 1162 to 1193, He acted as abbot for 32 years. He passed away at the age of 71 1193A.D. dbu se and bla ma zhang died {R300} in the same year.

5.07.06 sangs rgyas sgom pa and zem rin po che

sangs rgyas sgom pa (1160 - 1229)who was a native of. His family name was zi tsha, a division of the 'be (clan). He was born in the year Iron Male Dragon (lcags pho 'brug – 1160 A.D.). In 1177, the age of 18, he again proceeded to the residence of the Precious glang lung pa. There, after the lapse of one year, an excellent mystic trance was born in him. Till 1190, he received teachings from glang lung pa and obtained from him complete instructions. In 1197, he received final ordination. In 1201, he became abbot. He occupied the abbot's chair for a long time and died at the age of 70 in the year Earth Ox (sa glang – 1229 A.D.). {R299-300} zem rin po che (1201 - 1256)was born in the year Iron Female Hog (lcags mo phag – 1101 A.D.) at nger gom of ham mdo', his father being sba yags me po and his mother the nun bkra shis skyid. In 1116, he met sangs rgyas sgom pa and requested him to bestow ordination on him. He received the name of grags pa seng ge. He studied the Vinaya. In 1119, he received the final ordination. He then visited sangs rgyas sgom pa at bya yul. The latter accepted him in spirit, and bestowed on him the complete instructions. When he had reached the age of 39, sangs rgyas sgom pa passed away. Later on receiving the command of Śrī Devī, zem became abbot (of bya yul). He died at the age of 66 in the year Fire Male Dragon (me pho 'brug – 1256 A.D.). {R300-301}

At that time, 219 years had elapsed from the birth of spyan snga. From among his numerous disciples, 'od gsal ba, the Great, founded the monastery of 'od gsal in Upper zhogs. ri mer ba, the Great, founded the monastery of ri mer in Eastern lho brag. {R301-302}

5.07.07 mkham pa lung pa

The kalyāṇa mitra mkham pa lung pa (1232 - 1282) was born in the year Water Dragon (chu 'brug – 1232 A.D.) to sbas rnal 'byor mgon po and mother zhang lcam dkar yal. He studied the Vinaya, and obtained instruction from rin po che (glang lung pa), and practised meditation. At the age of 25, in 1256 A.D. he succeeded the chair of abbot from zem. Till the Water Male Horse (chu pho rta – 1282 A.D.), for 27 years, he acted as abbot and passed away.

5.07.08 sang rgyas jo bo and doom of bya yul

sangs rgyas jo bo (1232 - 1312): He proclaimed himself to be an incarnation of sangs rgyas sgom pa. He was born in the year Water Dragon (chu 'brug – 1232 A.D.). In 1256, he took up the final ordination (upasampadā). At 51, he became abbot of btsang gro and came to bya yul in the year Iron Hare (Icags yos – 1291 A.D.) at the age of 60. He passed away at the age of 81, in the year Water Male Mouse (chu pho byi ba – 1312 A.D.). {R303}

After having obtained the power of a Religious Protector he buried four images of dharmapālas together with their offerings inside the wall of the temple while he was repairing the vīhara of bya yul. When the 'bri khung pa killed nine monks at lo, the inmates of lo, having discovered gtor ma, killed the uncle and his disciples. {R303}

After mkham lung pa, gtsang ston acted as abbot from 1283 to 1285. He was murdered by the 'bri khung pas. (The monastery) of bya yul was burnt down, and from the year Fire Dog (me khyi – 1286 A.D.) till the year Iron Tiger (lcags stag – 1290 A.D.) the chair seems to have remained empty. In this Iron Tiger (lcags stag – 1290 A.D.) the rebellion of 'bri khung took place.

The next Iron Hare year (Icags yos – 1291 A.D.) was the year of sangs rgyas jo bo’s succession to the abbot's chair (of bya yul). The Emperor se chen (quibilai) presented many measures of gold to sangs rgyas jo bo to cover the expenses of rebuilding (of bya yul). Within one year they had rebuilt the vīhara of bya yul bya yul was rebuilt in 1292. {R303}

5.07.09 sangs rgyas ston pa the first and the second and other abbots

Regarding the Precious sangs rgyas ston pa: his native place was gru shul sgo. He was the eldest of the four sons of bkra shis 'bum and Śrī thar skyid. About the age of 14, he met mkham lung pa. He died in the year Wood Female Ox (sing mo glang – 1325 A.D.). {R303-304}.

Regarding sangs rgyas sgom pa, "the second"(1284-1326): he was born in the year Wood Male Ape (sing pho spre – 1284 A.D.). He came to bya yul to (interview) sangs rgyas jo bo and there obtained final monastic ordination. He obtained from sangs rgyas ston pa the complete religious system (chos skor) of bya yul pa. At that time the precepts of Vajrayāna were not extant, because of the extinction of the teaching after mkham pa lung pa. He went to mon lug mgo stens and obtained the teaching (of the Vajrayana) from sgom pa byang skyabs. At the age of 43, in 1326 A.D., he became abbot of bya yul. He passed away at the age of 55 in the year Earth Tiger (sa stag – 1338 A.D.). {R304}

sangs rgyas dbon po of rgyal stengs occupied the chair (of bya yul) for 18 months.

tshul khrims mgon po of btsan gro: He was a native of Ka ba sa . He was ordained by sangs rgyas jo bo and received instructions from sangs rgyas ston pa. He acted as abbot (of bya yul) from the year Iron Serpent (lcags sbrul – 1341 A.D.) till the year Water Female Hare (chu mo yos – 1363 A.D.).

spyan snga blo gros rnam dag pa, spyan snga chos kyi rdo rje of rgyal stengs. {R305} The chapter on the abbots (of bya yul) from spyan snga to bya yul pa.

5.08 The Chapter on the disciples bya yul pa

5.08.01 gul pi pa, dum bu ri ba, shab pa gling pa

gul pi pa, the Great, founded the monastery of rgyal po stens at mal gro (dbus).

The great dum bu ri ba of smad founded dum bu ri. He was known as the Bodhisattva zla rgyal of smad. shab pa gling pa, the Great, built the monastery of sab pa gling at dags po.

5.08.02 Abbots of kam kam

khrom bzher (1100 - 1170) established the vīhara of kam kam. khrom bzher rin chen seng ge was born in a Tantric family at 'chims. He lived as a lay Tantric. He attended on dbyig thang ston pa, who resided at mdo lung, and was a disciple of snam jo dpal and Lha btsun byang chub 'od. He also attended on kam pa, shar ba pa and bya yul pa. At the age of 38, in the year Fire Female Serpent (me mo sbrul – 1137 A.D.) he built the monastery of kam kam, and about 208 monks gathered in this monastery. {R305}

skyo ston rin po che byang chub zin chen (1126 -) was born at in the year Fire Male Horse (me pho rta – 1126 A.D.). In 1138, he met khrom bzher. At 21, he received the novitiate and the final monastic ordination in the presence of bya 'dul (bya 'dul ba 'dzin pa). In 1171, he became Abbot of kam kam. At the same time he became also Abbot of rgyal lha khang (in 'phan yul). {R305-306}

khrom bzher jo sras rin chen seng ge (1163 - 1220) was born at 'chims. In 1200, he occupied the chair (of kam kam) and also became abbot of spangs thang stod. {R306}

zhig po rin chen 'byung gnas of 'dul gra (1187-1254). He was a contemporary of sangs rgyas yar byon of stag lung, lha chen po of spyil bu, zem tshe ring mo ba, rgya spangs pa of se spyil bu, lha dge 'dun sgang pa, gan pa da re, and rgya ma pa sang yon. bsod nams rin chen was born in 1214. At 19, he received the novitiate and the upasampadā ordination in the presence of the yogin byang seng. He attended on 'dul gra pa and zem tshe ring mo ba. At 41, he became abbot in the year Wood Male Tiger (sing pho stag – 1254 A.D.). He died at the age of 73 in the year Fire Male Dog (me pho khyi – 1286 A.D.). {R307}

khrom bzher dbon po rong gzhon (1255 - 1327): At the age of 14, he took up ordination at kam kam. At 32, in 1286 A.D., he became abbot. In his fifth year as abbot in the year Iron Female Tiger (lcags pho stag – 1290 A.D.) the rebellion of 'bri khung took place, and The monastery of bya yul was damaged by fire. He died at the age of 73, in the year Fire Female Hare (me mo yos – 1327 A.D.). {R307-308}

His nephew, the Abbot khrom bzher rin chen seng ge (1305-1365) was a nephew of khrom bzher dbon po rong gzhon. At 20, attended on the ācārya rin gzhon and sangs rgyas ston pa of bya yul, and studied. At 24, in 1328, he became abbot. When he was 59, he appointed his nephew sangs rgyas 'od zer to the abbot's chair in the year Water Female Hare (chu mo yos – 1363 A.D.) and himself retired. He died at the age of 61 in the year Wood Female Serpent (sing mo sbrul – 1365 A.D.). {R308}

His nephew, sangs rgyas 'od zer (1346 - 1369): At 18, in the year Water Female Hare (chu mo yos – 1363 A.D.), he became abbot. He died at the age of 24 in the year Earth Female Hen (sa mo bya – 1369 A.D.). For 39 years, the chair of abbot had been empty. {R308-309}

brtson 'grus bzang po (1313 - 1385): At 37, in the year Earth Female Ox (sa mo glang – 1349 A.D.), he became abbot. When he was 49, in the year Iron Ox (lcags glang – 1361 A.D.), the All knowing jo nang pa died. The chair remained empty during the Fire Tiger year (me stag – 1386 A.D.). {R309-310}

The present Abbot don grub dpal was born in the year Wood Female Serpent (sing mo sbrul – 1365 A.D.) at klu gong of 'phan yul. He became Abbot at the age of 23 in the year Fire Female Hare (me mo yos – 1387 A.D.). In the year Fire Female Hen (me mo bya – 1417 A.D.), at the age of 31, he composed the chos byung bstan pa rin po che'i gsal byed. {R310-311} This is the chapter on the disciples bya yul pa.

5.09 The Chapter on rgya ma pa

5.09.01 four sons of dgon pa pa: kam pa shes rab 'od and ne’u zur pa

kam pa shes rab 'od (1057-1131) was born with the blessing of Atīśa in 1057. On being ordained, he received the name of shes rab 'od. Later, he went to interview dgon pa pa who helped him with spiritual and material means. He possessed an immeasurable faculty of intuitive knowledge and a very great wisdom.

In the Tarkājvāla translated by nag tsho, it is stated that the text has been translated by the two – nag tsho and mkhas btsun shes rab 'od who revised the Yogacaryā Tathatā (rnal 'byor spyod pa'i de kho na nyid gtan la dbab pa), and he seems to have been this shes rab 'od. He founded the monastery of kam, where about 700 monks gathered. He died at the age of 75 in the year Iron Female Hog (lcags mo phag – 1131 A.D.). {R311} the kalyāṇa mitras ne’u zur pa (1042 - 1118) who was the principal disciple of dgon pa pa was born in the year Water Male Horse (chu pho rta – 1042 A.D.). His name was ye shes 'bar. From that time (henceforth) an excellent innate mind concentration was born in him.

sgom pa shes rab dbang phyug offered his teaching, but sne’u zur pa was prevented for a time from going there. Later, at the age of 26, in 1067, he tried to interview with dgon pa pa, but he already retired. sne’u zur pa waited and served dgon pa pa till he allowed to meet. He chose bhaṭṭāraka Acala (mi gyo ba) as his yi dam , recited the mantra (bsnyen pa) and obtained a vision of the deity. After the death of dgon pa pa, he attended on po to ba. {R312}

Because of other’s envy, he was slandered. po to ba felt disgust towards him. However, finally, po to ba found out that he was innocent and felt very glad. He seems to have an ability of healing. He had helped many lepers.

Later he built the monastery of sne'u zur ('phan yul). {R313} He became a friend of the Venerable mid la on the mere hearing of his name. {R314}

He was known as a manifestation of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra. He died at the age of 77 in the year Earth Male Dog . {R314}

5.09.02. the spiritual lineage of spyan snga and spyan snga

The Spiritual Lineage of sne'u zur and that of spyan snga are known as "The Holders of Precepts". dg.yer sgom chen po, uncle and nephew, were disciples of sne’u zur pa. {R314} dg.yer sgom, the Great, was born in 1090 in the family of dg.yer lha snang. He was a disciple of the bla ma sne’u zur pa and of bya yul pa. Because he held meditation in high esteem, he was known as dg.yer sgom. His name was gzhon nu grags pa. He built the vīhara of rin chen sgang together with the monastery (of that name). About 300 monks gathered round him. He died at the age of 82 in the year Iron Female Hare (lcags mo yos – 1171 A.D.). {R315}

dbon ston rin po che, the son of bu mo stag, a younger brother of dg.yer sgom, the Great, was known as a reincarnation of the Bodhisattva skal ldan shing rta who was to become a Buddha among the thousand Buddhas of this Bhadrakalpa. He passed away at the age of 73 in the year Iron Male Horse (lcags pho rta – 1210 A.D.). {R315} dbon ston occupied the abbot's chair from 1179 to 1210.
1211 - 1241: sangs rgyas yon tan (sang yon pa) (1180 - 1241)
1242 - 1266: bde gsegs chen po (1202-1266)
1267 - 1268: gzhon nu 'bum of skam dgon (1201-1268)
1268 - 1292: sangs rgyas 'od 'byung (1230-1292)
1293 - 1334: sangs rgyas gzhon 'od (1293-1334)
1335 - 1342: The Dharmasvāmin bkras rgyal ba (bkra shis rgyal mtshan) (1280-1342)
1343 - 1344: spyan snga kun bzang pa (1272-1344)
1345 - 1346: gzhon nu seng ge ba (1316-1346)
1347 - 1360: The Dharmasvāmin bsod rgyal ba (bsod nams rgyal mtshan) (1314-1360)
1361 - 1365: sang yon pa (1311-1365)
1366 - 1368: empty.
1369 - 1389: spyan snga sangs rgyas byang chub pa (1334-1389)
1390 -1400: spyan snga kun blo ba (1342-1400)
1401-1436: spyan snga gzhon 'od pa
1438 - 1448: spyan snga blo gros rgyal mtshan (1390-1448)
1439 - 1440: The second blo gros rgyal mtshan (1413- )
1450 - : blo gros 'jigs med This is the chapter on rgya ma pa

5.10 The chapter on kam pa and shar ba pa, disciples of dgon pa pa, and their followers

byang chub dge mdzes (1084-1167) a disciple of sne’u zur pa and native of mnga’ ris. His family name was dge shing. He studied the Vinaya with tsha rong pa. He also met phu chung ba, glang ro thang pa, kam pa and kham pa lung pa. The kalyāṇa mitras gre pa having come to gyer in order to present his knowledge to sne’u zur pa, he acted as his priest. When sne’u zur pa died, he obtained a section of the Doctrine from bya yul pa and meditated at the monastery of byes can. He died in the Fire Hog year (me phag lo – 1167 A.D.). {R318}

skor, the Great was ordained as novice and then received the final monastic ordination in the presence of gnyags chung lo tsA ba. He briefly met sne’u zur pa. gun pa ba prophesied to him, and according to it, he obtained from mnga’ ris pa dge mdzes the teaching of sne’u zur pa. He built the great stūpa of stag can in yar klungs. {R318}

skor appointed skor jo sras to the abbot's chair. However, the kalyāṇa mitra ston dar and the sthavira brtsod se did not install him (as abbot) and he proceeded to sha 'ug stag go. He was again invited to stag can. He died at rgya sa sgang. {R318-319} mar pa phug pa (1156-1228) was ordained in the presence of gser sdings pa and received the final monastic ordination in the presence of klubs dkar. He studied extensively the Vinaya. For twenty years he practised meditation and studied with skor jo sras the precepts of the bka’ gdams pas. From 63 onwards, he began teaching. He took over stag can, ser ba dgon pa, rgyas sa sgang, btsan thang and rong skam. {R319}

His successor was zhig po kun grol. His native place was Eastern yar klungs. He received the noviciate and the final monastic ordination in the presence of gra 'dul and yol lcags. {R319} He had also been a disciple of sangs rgyas sgom pa of snar thang. When sa skya pa arrived in dbus, he invited him to dpungs rings and offered him a hundred presents. He studied the bstan rim with zem at bya yul, and the lam rim (of the Master) with lha spu gu do ba. {R319-320}

Regarding sangs rgyas ston pa: his family was mtha' bzhi. He took up the final monastic ordination (upasampadā) at spyil bu in the presence of bha 'gro bo'i mgon po, and laboured extensively for the welfare of the Doctrine and living creatures. He died in the year Water Female Ox (chu mo glang – 1313 A.D.).{R320}

sangs rgyas dbon, the Great, was a disciple of lha zur khang pa. He studied the bka’ gdams doctrine under sangs rgyas ston pa at chos phug. He passed away in the year Earth Male Dog (sa pho khyi – 1358 A.D.).

At chos phug, sangs rgyas dbon po was succeeded by chos phug pa gzhon nu blo gros, grags pa rgyal mtshan, grags pa bzang po, rdo rje rgyal mtshan and sangs rgyas rdo rje. Till the present time the practice of preaching the lam rim chen po of skor to an assembly has not been interrupted. The chapter on kam pa and shar ba pa, disciples of dgon pa pa, and their followers.

5.11 The Chapter on the Venerable Master and his Spiritual Lineage.

5.11.01 bra gor

Since the monastery of bra gor had been established by gnyos bra gor pa of gnyal, it should be considered as belonging to the Line of the "Holders of the Texts" among the bka’ gdams pas (bka’ gdams gzhung pa). However, it seems no to be any successor of bra gor.

In later times there have been four chief disciples of dar ma bsod nams of zangs chen who had been a disciple of lha 'gro ba'i mgon po: mtsho sna ba, rtse dkar ba, dar ma sgang ba and byar khang pa. They are known as the "Four sons of zangs chen pa."

Among them mtsho sna ba shes rab bzang po resided at bra gor. After him tshul khrims bkra sis of mon grab, {R321} sangs rgyas shes rab of gye, chos skyabs bzang po, chos dpal rgyal ba, bsod nams dpal ldan, also known as the mahā upādhyāya brag pa, yon tan rin chen bsam se ba, rdor se ba, yon dbang pa, chos rje ba, chos rgyal bzang po, chos rgyal bzang po dbu nag pa, brtson 'grus rgyal po and yon tan 'od zer of gtsang.

5.11.02 ri stengs

Before him there had been 15 upādhyāyas. rgyal mtshan bzang po of ri stengs, a disciple of mtsho na ba, the Great, (was abbot) at ri stengs. After him the Dharmasvāmin rin chen, kong ston shes rab rdo rje, sku 'bum pa, chos rgyal ba, the Dharmasvāmin dpal bzangs pa, an incarnation of sgo gcig pa, known as sgo gcig pa. Before him there had been seven upādhyāyas.

The one known as rong pa phyag sor pa remembered thirteen of his (former) lives and possessed great prophetic knowledge. He visited nag tsho lo tsA ba who was residing at khab gong thang. nag tsho bestowed on him numerous secret precepts of the Mantrayāna and he spent three years (with him).

He preached the Vinaya sūtra (mdo rtsa) and the Sikṣasamuccaya. Then he renounced all (worldly) activity and for a long time meditated at lag sor monastery, without seeing his attendant. At the end of his meditation, when {R322} he was proceeding to mediate in a dispute between spa tshab and 'phrang kha, he met rma tsho byang rdor at phong mdo. He invited him and de'u shang rdor, and held a religious assembly during which the "Four Sons of rong pa" appeared. They are: bya 'dul ba 'dzin pa, rog 'chims phu ba, rnam par ba and the kalyāṇa mitra zhus lan pa. rgya ra ston being an upāsaka is not included among the sons. rnam par ba founded rnam par and ram pa lha sdings. He also acted as abbot of gsang phu for eight years. rnam par ba and rog held in high esteem the secret precepts. They seem not to have cared for the history of the school. {R322}

zhus lan pa held in high esteem the history, basing on which zul phu ba composed a detailed history of the Master. zul phu ba studied much the bka’ gdams pa precepts under stod lungs pa, the Great, but his followers are listed among the Vinayadharas and none of them seem to have been listed among the bka’ gdams pas.

The disciple of rnal 'byor pa, the Great, – mang ra 'byung gnas rgyal mtshan: his disciple brtson 'grus rgyal mtshan of snyug rum: he was born in the year Water Male Horse (chu pho rta – 1042 A.D.) and died at the age of 68 in the year Earth Fcmale Ox (sa mo glang – 1109 A.D.). About eight hundred monks gathered round him.

5.11.03 khri mchog

A native of lho brag chag pa, khri mchog obtained many instructions from the Venerable Master. He was good at the preaching of treatises and the analysis of the theory. When he asked about his meditation when Atīśa was dying, Atīśa suggested him to abandon this life. {R323} He asked the kalyāṇa mitra ston pa:to preach without saying “"This (will be) of no use" and admonished rnal 'byor pa. After that, even though he stayed at rwa sgreng, he did not talk to anyone.{R323-324}

5.11.04 rngog and rngog lo ldan shes rab

rngog was a descendent of a minister of the religious king khri srong lde'u btsan had a minister, rngog. He was the eldest son, rngog legs pa'i shes rab of rdo rje gzhon nu of the "Old" Tantra School. He was ordained by 'brin ye shes yon tan. He went to khams to study the Piṭakas and became a disciple of the Master se btsun. {R324}

He studied the Doctrine extensively, and having befriended khu ston and others, went to dbus in the Hen year (bya lo – 1045 A.D.) which is the Hen year following the year of Dromston's coming (to dbus). He requested the Master and the lo tsA ba (nag tsho) to translate the Tarkajvalā and to write the Mādhyamakopadesa nāma. {R324}

He founded a monastery at brag nag (near lha sa) and the great vīhara of ne'u thog (gsang phu) in the year Water Female Ox (chu mo glang – 1073 A.D.). In the same year 'khon dkon mchog rgyal po founded sa skya. {R325}

His nephew rngog lo chen po (rnog lo ldan shes rab:1159-1109) was son of chos skyabs. When he was 17, he was sent for study to Kaśmīra. He went there in the company of rwa lo, gnyan lo, khyung po chos brtson, rdo ston and gtsang kha bo che. When king rtse lde had invited most of the Tripiṭakadharas of dbus, gtsang and khams, and held the religious council of the year Fire Male Dragon (me pho 'brug – 1076 A.D.), he also attended it.

He studied at Kaśmīra and returned to Tibet. In Tibet he studied the Doctrine with the paṇḍita 'bum phrag gsum pa (brtan skyon) and Sumatikīrti. He visited Nepāl for a short whde and heard the Tantra from Atulya vajra, Varendraruci and others. Then he again returned to Tibet and made numerous correct translations. {R325-326}

He gradually gathered round himself 23,000 learned and venerable monks. Among his assistant preachers (zur chos pa) were: 55 preachers of Alaṃkara and Pramāṇaviniścayaṭīka , 280 expounders of the Pramāṇaviniścaya (rnam nges), 1800 Āgama

dharmabhāṇakas (lung chos smra ba) and about 2130 preachers of the Doctrine (chos smra ba) . Among the numerous disciples who attended his classes, formerly and later, four are known as his "Four Principal Sons": zhang tshes spong chos kyi bla ma, gro lung pa blo gros 'byung gnas, khyung rin chen grags and 'bre shes rab 'bar.

There appeared many teachers such as gangs pa she'u, gong bu ra can, sham po me dig, me lhang tsher, dmar sgas lung, rngog skya bo, tre bo mchog gi bla ma and others. The lo tsA ba himself heard the (exposition) of the Doctrine of the Master from (his) uncle. Up to the time of the direct disciples of the uncle and nephew, all were holders of the Master's treatises.

legs pa'i shes rab being also a disciple of 'brom, is included among the bka’ gdams pas. In general, during the 13 years of the Master's stay in Tibet, there had been many on whom he bestowed secret precepts and who had obtained excellent knowledge (of the Doctrine), but their number cannot be ascertained. {R326-327}

5.11.05 epilogue

In gtsang 'gar, 'gos and yol, and in dbus khu, rngog and Drom appear to have been famous. I gave here a brief account of the kalyāṇa mitras of the bka’ gdams pa sect who belonged to the Spiritual Lineage of Dromand whose biographies have been seen by me. In the "Life stories" of the kalyāṇa mitras who had appeared in Tibet in later times, and of the yogins who had been Saints, statements are found that they had met the kalyāṇa mitras of the bka’ gdams pas.

'brom's labours have been very extensive and lasted for a long period of time. Above I have briefly described the results of the setting into motion of the Wheel of Law by Dipaṅkaraśrījñāna. The Doctrine Chapter on the Venerable Master and his Spiritual Lineage.

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